Rev Med Interne. 2009 Feb;30(2):135-41. Epub 2008 Oct 15.
[Antiphospholipid antibodies, antiphospholipid syndrome and viral infections].
[Article in French]
Sène D, Piette JC, Cacoub P.
Service de médecine interne II, groupe hospitalier La-Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47-83, boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France. email@example.com
Since the association between antiphospholipid antibodies and syphilis was first described, many other viral, bacterial and parasitic infections have been shown to induce antiphospholipid antibodies, notably anticardiolipin antibodies. These aPL are usually associated neither with anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-beta2-GPI) nor with thrombotic events, even if cases of arterial and deep venous thrombosis have been reported in such circumstances. A literature review shows that anticardiolipin antibodies occur frequently in viral infections, particularly in HIV (49.8%), HBV (24%) and HCV (20%). The prevalence of anti-beta2 glycoprotein I antibodies (anti-beta2GPI) is lower (HCV: 1.7%, HIV: 5.6%, HBV: 3.3%) and there is no demonstrated association with a risk of thrombotic events or hematological manifestations defining antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Regarding other viral infections, including viral hepatitis A, herpes virus (CMV, EBV, VZV), parvovirus B19 and HTLV-1 infections, only a few studies are available but data confirm the high prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies at the acute phase.
Finally, antiphospholipid antibodies, mainly anticardiolipin, are frequently associated with viral infections. Their presence may probably reflect an intense or chronic antigenic stimulation of the immune system. However, their evolution under antiviral therapy and correlation with the quality of the virological control and/or the immune restoration remain to be determined.
PMID: 18926604 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
See also: Study demonstrates that 95% of ME/CFS Patients have Anticardiolipin Antibodies, suggesting that ME/CFS may be an autoimmune condition