Characterization of Natural Killer cell phenotypes
in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis.
J Clin Cell Immunol. 2014. 5: 223. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.1000223
Huth TK, Brenu EW, Nguyen T, Hardcastle SL, Johnston S, Ramos S, Staines DR, Marshall-Gradisnik SM.
Received date: April 22, 2014,
Accepted date: June 7, 2014,
Published date: June 14, 2014
Natural Killer (NK) cells are classified into different phenotypes
according to the expression of the surface markers CD56 and CD16.
Each NK cell phenotype has a role in the immune response
through cytotoxic activity or cytokine production.
Reduced NK cell cytotoxic activity is a consistent finding
in patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) and
investigations into the potential causes of reduced NKcell cytotoxic activity
have predominantly focused on total NK cells.
The purpose of this study was
to investigate and characterize four NK cell phenotypes in CFS/ME.
Twenty nine CFS/ME patients (mean age ± SEM=48.28 ± 2.63)
meeting the 1994 Fukuda definition
and 27 healthy controls (mean age ± SEM=49.15 ± 2.51)
were included in this study.
Flow cytometric protocols identified
CD56brightCD16-/dim, CD56dimCD16-, CD56dimCD16+ or CD56-CD16+ NK cells
for the measurement of surface markers
including adhesion moleculesCD2, CD18, CD11a, CD11b and CD11c,
natural cytotoxicity receptors, Killer Immunoglobulin Like Receptors,
signalling lymphocytic activation molecules and cell maturation (CD57).
NK cell phenotype expression of CD107a and CD107b
was measured as a marker for degranulation.
Intracellular staining measured lytic proteins
including perforin, Granzyme A and Granzyme B
in the four NK cell phenotypes.
In the CFS/ME group, CD56brightCD16-/dim NK cell co-expression of
from CFS/ME patients.
from CFS/ME patients was significantly increased.
This is the first study to characterize
four NK cell phenotypes in CFS/ME
by investigating surface and intracellular molecules
necessary for NK cell effector function.
The data suggests that
a combination of impairments in CD56dimCD16+ NK cells from CFS/ME patients
may contribute to reduced cytotoxic activity of this phenotype.
Natural Killer cell; Phenotypes; Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; Cytotoxic activity;
Adhesion molecules; Degranulation; Granzyme B; Cell maturation